Sharepoint 2013 Architecture

1. Logical Architecture

Sharepoint 2013 Logical Components:

  • Farm – the highest level boundary.
  • Service Applications – provide different functionalities to Web Application; they can be shared between Web Applications and even between Farms.
  • Application Pools – help isolate Web Applications; provide a security and resource boundary between Web Applications.
  • Web Applications – an IIS Website; can have one or more content databases.
  • Site Collections – a boundary within a Web Application;
  • Sites – sites that you creates in a Web Application are stored in the content database. You can use central administration to see and manage them.
  • Apps – Lists, Libraries, Items

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Network Path Control

1. CEF Switching

Each of the many processes of a router or switch can be assigned to one of three conceptual planes of operation:

  • Forwarding Plane – Moves packets from input to output
  • Control Plane – Determines how packets should be forwarded
  • Management Plane – Methods of configuring the control plane (CLI, SNMP, etc.)

There are 2 types of switching: circuit switching used in the telephone networks, packet switching means the message is broken into packets that can travel through different routes to the destination. Types of packet switching:

  • Process switching: This switching method is the slowest of the three methods.
    Every packet is examined by the CPU in the control plane and all forwarding decisions are made in software.
  • Fast switching: This switching method is faster than process switching. With fast
    switching, the initial packet of a traffic flow is process switched. This means that it
    is examined by the CPU and the forwarding decision is made in software. However,
    the forwarding decision is also stored in the data plane hardware fast-switching
    cache. When subsequent frames in the flow arrive, the destination is found in the
    hardware fast-switching cache and the frames are then forwarded without interrupting the CPU.
  • Cisco Express Forwarding: This switching method is the fastest switching mode
    and is less CPU-intensive than fast switching and process switching. The control
    plane CPU of a CEF-enabled router creates two hardware-based tables called the
    Forwarding Information Base (FIB) table and an adjacency table using Layer 3 and 2
    tables including the routing and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) tables. When a
    network has converged, the FIB and adjacency tables contain all the information a
    router would have to consider when forwarding a packet.

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Route Filtering

1. Distribute List with ACL

Options in the distribute-list command allow updates to be filtered based on three factors:

  • Incoming interface
distribute-list [access-list-number | name] in [interface-type interface-number]
  • Outgoing interface
distribute-list [access-list-number | name] out [interface-type interface-number | routing process | autonomous-system-number]
  • Redistribution from another routing protocol
R(config)# ip access-list standard ROUTE-FILTER 
R(config-std-nacl)# permit 
R(config-std-nacl)# permit 
R(config-std-nacl)# exit 
R(config)# router ospf 10 
R(config-router)# redistribute eigrp 100 metric 40 subnets 
R(config-router)# distribute-list ROUTE-FILTER out eigrp 100

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SQL Server Security

1.Logins & Server Roles

  • Logins and Server Roles define users and permissions at the Instance level.
  • Server Role permissions cannot be seen through the user interface, to do this you need to execute:
  • If you want to grant or deny a specific permission on a database to a user you can use the following command:
USE [database]
DENY ALTER TO [domain\user]

NOTE: Deleting the Logins won’t delete the Users at the database level. This will result in orphaned Users.
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SQL Server High Availability Solutions

1. Clustered Instances

Clustered Instances features:

  • Provide HA at the Instance level.
  • Requires Windows Failover Clustering technology.
  • It is usually used when you have multiple SQL instances.
  • You can configure each instance to run under a different owner so that all your SQL servers will be used.

2. Backups

Backup Type:

  • Full Backups – this will backup the entire database.
  • Differential Backups (cumulative backup) – this will contain all the data since the last full backup.
  • Transaction Log Backups (not cumulative backup) – this will contain the data since the last full, differential or transaction log backup.
  • Copy-Only Backup – a copy-only backup cannot serve as a differential base or differential backup and does not affect the differential base.

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